China´s Political Structure
Socialism is the basic system of the People's Republic of China
The Chinese Constitution:
In the fundamental law of a state constitution, the country's social system and state structure and the basic principles, organization and activities of state bodies and citizens' fundamental principles governing the rights and obligations take place. In the constitutions of some countries, national flag, national anthem, national emblem, the capital and the ruling classis determined at other important management procedures, the constitution covers all areas of the state. In the nature of the supreme law of the state constitution, it is the basis for the preparation of the country's other laws and any laws and regulations in that country cannot come in an unconstitutional way.
Before the establishment of the People's Republic of China enacted the "Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference PartnerProgram", China People's Democratic United Front Program, however, had played the role of the interim constitution. On September 29, 1949 the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, which was accepted after the first General Meeting in the Partner Program, entered into force of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China until 1954, when it actually fulfilled the role of interim constitution.
After its establishment on 1st October 1954, the People’s Republic of China prepared in 1954, 1975, 1978 and a total of four constitutions and entered into force in 1982. China’s fourth constitution which is in force today was approved on 4th December 1982 in the 5th General Meeting of the 5th National People’s Congress and entered into force. The basic principles of 1954 Constitution are still there and developing, it’s the basic law which meets China’s construction of socialist modernization. In the Constitution, the People’s Republic of China’s political and economic regime and the rights and obligations of citizens, the state organs and areas of responsibility, in general the basic tasks of the state were absolutely acquired. This is also the basic constitution of the main features of this regime with the four basic principles and tasks of reform and opening-shaped base line determination. It is necessary that in the Constitution, citizens of all ethnic groups living in China with the organization has to accept the constitution and should act as a guide, the constitution or laws of any organization or person cannot be the final decision on the privileges is connected.
Preface, the overall program, the basic rights and obligations of citizens, state bodies, national flag, national emblem and capital which consist of five sections including Chinese Constitution, contains 138 substances. The Chinese Constitution has been changed four times, so it has constantly strengthened.
People’s Assembly System:
Practiced in Western countries, legislative, executive, and judiciary based on "separation of powers" system under theparliamentary regime which is different from the National People's Congress, China Constitution was determined as the highest organ of state authority. Every Chinese citizen who has attained the age of 18 has the right to elect and to be elected. There are different levels in China’s People’s Assembly between the township and county levels of public representatives who are directly elected and higher levels of public representatives who are indirectly elected. The National People’s Assembly members in China are connected to every province, autonomous region and the center of the city and the army. There’s Five-year tenure with the People’s Councils at all levels who meet once a year.
At the annual meeting of the People’s Councils, both the government work reports and other important reports are listened and related decisions are made after the examination. When the People’s Council is closed, the permanent organs are conducted by the People’s Congress Standing Committee. For instance, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, oversees the implemention of the explained constitution, detects only laws outside of the laws of the parliament by the authority and makes changes; they’re also responsible for the work of the National People’s Assembly which they have to report to the General Assembly.
China’s basic duties and powers of the People’s Assembly are the legislative authority, the audit authority, the authority to decide on important issues, and also managing the authority to appoint and dismiss ranks. In China, an important decision-making process is to determine the national economy and social development plan for specified periods, which aims to accelerate the country’s social development. However, these plans can only be legally after the approval of the National People’s Assembly. However, the President in accordance with legal regulations in China, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman’s leading executives as well as the state, is elected by the National People’s Congress. The Prime Minister and ministers are appointed by the National People’s Congress. The National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairmen has the authority to dismiss managers such as the president or prime minister.
Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System:
Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) which led the Multi-party Cooperation and Political Consultation System is China’s fundamental political system. In China, there are eight more democratic parties. These parties started to support the leadership of the CCP even before the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. The reason for such a political orientation is that these democratic parties were in cooperation with the CCP and had a common struggle for a long time in the process stems from their historical choice. The CCP and the democratic parties must act according to the constitution. All the democratic parties which are independent in terms of organizing, do politics freely within the limits set by the constitution and have the right to organize independently and they are treated equal. Both the CCP and the democratic parties cooperate in accordance with these principles: “Long-term coexistence, mutually audit, internal act together, be in unity of faith.”
Not all the democratic parties in China are “opposition parties”, but are participation-in-politics parties. Democratic parties have the right to participate in things like the major policy of the state, the determination of the state executive, state administration and the implemention of laws and regulations.
Before deciding on major issues concerning public life and taking precautions, the CCP always listens first the opinions of all the democratic parties and “pro-democracy with non-party”. To engage better the politics of the State, to discuss the jobs and supervisory of the government better, the democratic parties and pro-democratic partisans, the government’s power which is an organ at all levels of People’s Assembly Standing Committee and the Permanent Commissions are also represented to certain proportions. The role of the democratic Parties and pro-democracy parties is important in the People’s Political Consultative Conferences. Democratic Party members and partisans, pro-democracy, and justice authorities can be brought to various levels of the management of the government.
The principle forms of the Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System are: 1. People’s Political Consultative Conferences. People’s Political Consultative Conference, the democratic parties, civil society and representatives of all sectors of society to participate in politics and state affairs are important institutions. 2. There are held meeting with the CCP’s central committee by the Democratic Party committees at all levels and with the participation of non-party personages. This meeting will provide information about important developments in the major lines and policies, state and local government executive candidates, and People’s Political Consultative Conference of the People’s Assembly on issues such as the formation of opinions are taken. 3. Democratic Party’s People Councils take part at different levels in their capacity as representatives. 4. The members of the democratic parties of China’s State Council, ministries and committees serve in the county and local governments. 5. To be brought to the director of public persecution and judicial bodies by democratic parties which have certain conditions.