People’s Republic of China is located in East Asia and on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. China, with an area of approximately 9,6 million square kilometers is Asia’s largest country and after Russia and Canada, the world’s largest country.
Chinese territory extends in the north of the River north of Mohe in Heilongjiang River (53 degrees 30 minutes north latitude), Nansha Archipelago in the south, which is the most southern point in the Cliffs of Zengmuanshi (4 degrees north latitude). The difference between these two points is about 49 degrees latitude. North-south width is approximately 5500 miles. The Chinese border is in the east of the restoring point of theWusul River and Heilingjang river (135 degrees 5 minutes east longitude) and extends to the west of Pamir Plateau (73 degrees 40 minutes east longitude). It is concerned approximately 60 degrees of longitude difference between these two points. The width is about 5000 kilometers in West-East direction.
China’s land borders and length is more than 20 thousand kilometers, there are 14 contiguous states. The country has borders with Korea in the east, Democratic People’s Republic in the north, Russia in the northeast, Kazakhstan in the northwest, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the west, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan in the southwest and Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam in the south.
China’s coastal total length is about 18 thousand kilometers and is located in the north province of Liaoning in the Yalu River estuary where the Sino-Korean border is, and extends from southern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, which is located in Beilun River. The seas around China are the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean of Taiwan in the east. Taiwan island is the largest island in the sea area, including more than 5000 islands. The sum of the island shoreline is 14 thousand kilometers.
China, east and southeast of the Republic of Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia and Indonesia are neighbors from the sea.
The most important rivers are located in the East China region. The most important rivers are Sungari-Lia Ho which is in the North East Manchurian region, the Yellow River (Huanghe) which is in the eastern region, the Blue River (Yang-Tse Kiang) which is in the mid-section and the Pearl River (Chi-kiang) which is in the south. The Rivers in the eastern region have the ability to change direction. The biggest factors affecting the change of desert conditions and the road of desert flows are the snowmelt and evaporation. The Blue River, which has the length of 5552km, is the world’s fourth longest river.
The lake basins in western China will expire in rivers or into groundwater in arid lands. Huang-Ho, with the country’s two major rivers (4845 km) and Yang-tse kiang, is born in Tibet. Huang-Ho River which is in the north part of Mongolia is the country’s most important river. There are several small lakes in the basin of western agriculture. The most important lakes are the salt lakes in Mongolia, the Tung-Ting in eastern regions and Pi-yang and Tai lakes.
Land Shapes and Topography:
China is a country with very large mountainous areas. Areas of mountainous regions constitute two-thirds of the surface area of the country. By mountainous regions, it is meant the mountains, hills and plateaus. 33 percent of land in the country constitutes mountains, 26 percent plateaus, 19 percent basins, 12 percent plains and 10 percent hills.
Millions of years ago the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau rose and the earth crustal movements in the area has created the topography and history of China. China’s territory is seen like a staircase descending from west to east when views with a bird’s-eye. The plateau which has an altitude of about 4000 meters above sea level is called “roof of the world” and creates the first step of China’s land forms. The Himalayas (Everest) which is 8848.13 meters above high is the highest peak in the world. The second step is composed of the Inner Mongolia Plateau, Huantu Plateau, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, the Tarim Basin, Junggar Basin and the Sichuan Basin. Their average height above sea level is 1000-2000 meters. The third step, the Great Xing, Taihang, Wushan and Xuefeng mountains are starting of a line which is drawn east cost of the Pacific Ocean and which lies to the right of it. This place is about 500-1000 meters above sea level. Region stretching from north to south in the Northeast Plain, the North China Plain and the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain Basin and situated on the edge of these plains are low mountains and hills. Eastward shallow seas of the continental shelf in the region of China, that is the fourth step. The depth of the sea water is less than 200 meters.
Territorial Waters and Islands:
The coast of mainland of China goes from the estuary Yalu River in Liaoning Province in the north to the Guang Xia Beilun River estuary in the south. Total length is about 18 thousand kilometers. The topography of the sea coast offrost throughout the year, consists of a good harbor. Near the sea between China, the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean to the east of Taiwan, including the sea area include five large marine regions. Of these, Bohai, China is an inland sea. The sea area of the Pacific Ocean which is in the east of Taiwan and RyuKyu islands which is in the north of Japan and in the south of the island in the southwest Xiandao extends to the Bashi Strait. Internal waters and territorial sea of the area comprising China's sea area exceeds 380 thousand square kilometers. The basis of the territorial waters of the Republic of China on the land side from the line stretching to the sea shore marine area is China's internalwaters. The width of the territorial sea of China is 12 nautical miles. Basic line of territorial waters, determined by drawing straight base line and each base which is coterminous with the point has been formed between the straight line.
China's sea areas, with a total area of 80 thousand square kilometers, has more than 5,000 islands.
The total length of the coast of the island is about 14 thousand kilometers. They are the largest island of Taiwanisan area of 36 thousand square kilometers. The area of the island of Hainan subsequent is 34 thousand square kilometers. Located off the Diaoyu Islands northeast of Taiwan and Chiwan, are in China in the east of the island. Dispersed into the South China Sea islands, reefs and beaches in the general name are "islands in the South China Sea". Located at the southern most tip of China according to the position where the Dongsha islands Archipelago, are called Xisha Archipelago and Nansha Archipelago and Zhongshan Archipelago.